The recent shocking murder on a Chinese stewardess during her ride home from the airport, using the Didi Chuxing car-hailing service, has been on top trending lists on Chinese social media this month.
Although the main suspect in the case, a Didi driver named Liu, was initially missing, police finally retrieved his body from a local river earlier this week. The man allegedly jumped into a river and drowned after killing the passenger.
It is a tragic murder that will be remembered as the ‘Didi Murder’ for years to come, just as many other criminal cases, many unsolved, are still being discussed by China media and netizens to this day.
It led to the compilation of this list by What’s on Weibo on China’s top ten unresolved (murder) mysteries (“中国十大悬案”), based on stories and lists from Weibo, message boards, and media reports.
● 10: The Murder of Pamela Werner
This is a case that, even after over 80 years, is still attracting much (online) attention both in China and abroad. Pamela Werner (帕梅拉•沃纳) was a 19-year-old British girl who was brutally murdered on her way home from a skating rink in Beijing in January 1937.
Pamela Werner was the adopted daughter of author and former British consul of Fuzhou, Edward Werner; her adoptive mother had previously died. She was raised in Beijing, and in the winter of 1937, she had returned from her Grammar School in Tianjin.
On January 7th, Pamela was going out to have tea with a friend and afterward cycled to the French skating rink. She left the rink around 7.30 at night, when it was already very dark, and did not return home. The following day, her body was found in a ditch at what was then called the Fox Tower.
Pamela was not just found murdered – she was also found to have been sexually violated and was left seriously disfigured and mutilated. Shockingly, her body was found without the heart, which had been taken from the severed body.
Besides the brutality of the murder, there are many other reasons why Werner’s case has become so well-known. Such a horrific murder of a British girl in China was unheard of, and the setting of a pre-communist Beijing in a China that was on the verge of the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War made her case all the more intriguing to many – especially because investigations of the case offer a glimpse into the 1930s foreign community of old Peking.
Although Pamela’s father was obsessed with the investigation into his daughter’s murder, the case was never solved. Among the rumored suspects were some eccentric expats, vengeful Japanese soldiers, and even senior diplomats from the British embassy.
In 2011, Paul French published the book Midnight in Peking: How the Murder of a Young Englishwoman Haunted the Last Days of Old China, which sparked a new wave of interest in the case.
The newest work on the Pamela Werner mystery is that of retired police officer G.D. Sheppard, Life & Death In Old Peking: The Murder of Pamela Werner, which contains new research material (will appear under new publisher somewhere this year).
● 9: The Dushanzi Missing Car Case
On October 20 of 1996, two young men from Dushanzi (独山子) in Xinjiang province named Guo Nonggeng (郭农耕) and Wang Changrui (王昌瑞) (both Han Chinese) disappeared without a trace after they had embarked on a journey to Urumqi.
The men were heading to Urumqi to join a second-hand car market. They were never seen again.
Despite extensive police research and monetary rewards for anyone providing insights into the case, the case was never solved. What has been especially puzzling to officials investigating the case is that not just the two men were lost without a trace, but also that their car – a grey Volkswagen Santana – was never found.
The men were both in their early twenties at the time of disappearance. The parents of the two men are still looking for them, and Chinese media occasionally still report on the case – although there have been no developments.
● 8: Scientist Peng Jiamu’s Lop Nor Disappearance
The case of Peng Jiamu (彭加木) is a famous one, which has been elaborately written about both in Chinese as in English-language sources.
Peng Jiamu was a renowned scientist and explorer. Born in Guangdong Province in 1925, he was a biochemist graduate who subsequently worked at the Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, and who joined several scientific expeditions to Xinjiang since 1956.
During one of these missions in 1980 to the Xinjiang Lop Nur (罗布泊) desert, the so-called “Wandering Lake,” the 55-year-old Peng was the leader of a research team of 11 scientists. He vanished from his camp in the early afternoon of June 17, after leaving a note saying he was going eastward to find water as he and his team were out of water and fuel. They had already asked for rescues via telegram, which would arrive the following day.
Lop Nor is a landscape of shifting sand dunes and a largely dried-up basin where the Tarim Lake once was, which covered more than 10,000 km2 in the Tarim Basin. It is known as a dangerous area for its strong winds, dry weather, hot temperatures during the day and extremely low temperatures during the night.
On the 24th of June, the CCP Radio issued a broadcast announcing the disappearance of the famous scientist. Despite large-scale rescue operations involving helicopters and jeeps, Peng was not found again.
His disappearance captured the imagination of so many because Peng was a well-experienced researcher and explorer familiar with the area. Some have linked his case to supernatural events, even suggesting the scientist was abducted by aliens. Other theories include Peng being murdered by fellow scientists, or him defecting to the Soviet Union.
● 7: The Hong’an County December Murders
This well-known case involves the brutal slaughter of eight people on December 26 of 2007 at a factory in Shangxinji Town, Hong’an County, in Hubei Province. It is known as the most horrific murder case of Hubei.
The mass homicide was discovered by police after receiving multiple calls in the early morning of December 27. They found that one of those murdered was Wang Shishu (汪世书, 56), a man who ran the lime factory in Hong’an County. The other victims were his wife Chen Xiaorun (54), his cousin’s family, and three factory workers. Four of the victims were over the age of 60, the youngest was only 9 years old.
According to Shanghai Daily, six of the victims were found dead in a bedroom with their bedding untouched, indicating they were killed before falling asleep.
Wang Shishu’s wife was found lying in a pool of blood near the factory gate with a slashed throat, while the body of Wu Xiaofa, his cousin-in-law, was found in a ditch beside a road near the factory.
Despite that the police offered a 50,000 yuan (±US$7900) for anyone who could provide more information about the killer, the case has not been solved to this day.
All that is known, is that Wang Shishu had money stolen from him (15,000 yuan or US$±2370 in cash) six weeks before the murders and that the attacker wore a pair of EU-size 40 leather shoes.
● 6: The Beijing Passion Nightclub Murder
Passion Nightclub, also known as Heaven on Earth (天上人间 Tianshang Renjian), was one of Beijing’s most notorious clubs, known for its sexy “66 pink ladies” waitresses or ‘hostesses’, who were all tall, elegant, and well-educated. According to Asia Times, it was also known as Beijing’s most exclusive men’s club.
One of the club’s many ladies was the beautiful Liang Hailing (梁海玲), who was known as the “No.1 courtesan in Beijing” (花魁). The woman, from Hebei province, was known to be extremely charming, fair-skinned and 172 cm tall with a weight of 45 kilograms. She started working for the club in 1996 and stayed on as the best-paid lady of the club until her death in 2005 – at the height of the club’s success.
The Passion Nightclub attracted rich and powerful men, influential people, who would spend a lot of money there. Renting a private room at the Passion would cost up to 5,000 yuan (±US$790), with clients spending 20,000-30,000 yuan (±US$3160-4740) per night.
In this People’s Daily editorial, it says that one time during the 1990s, the police had to be called for a dispute that got out of hand at the club which involved a bureau chief of the Ministry of Public Security – indicating that higher level officials also frequented the club.
Liang was killed in her own home on November 13, 2005, supposedly through strangulation. After Liang’s death, police investigating her house found that not only did she have millions of yuan saved at her home, but that she also had the personal contact details of many provincial and ministerial officials, who apparently maintained close ties with her.
The names of the men who maintained close relations with Liang were never revealed by the police, and the murder case remains unsolved to this day.
The Passion Nightclub was raided by police in May of 2010, when 118 night club girls were arrested and the club was (temporarily) closed for offences involving prostitution. According to this news article from April of 2018, the Passion is currently still open but is nothing more but a KTV box now.
The case of Liang Hailing’s murder is still a hot topic of speculation on Chinese social media and in the media, with many people saying she was murdered by one or more of her own ‘lovers,’ who paid her a monthly fee for her services, and that Liang knew too much about people who were too influential.
Over a Third of China’s Babies Are Delivered via C-Section – The National Health Commission Wants to Change That
Fear of pain is a major reason for nonmedical cesarian deliveries on maternal request.
In 2018 the percentage of deliveries by cesarean was 36.7% in mainland China, according to the latest Report on Women’s & Children’s Health (中国妇幼健康事业发展报告) that was launched by the National Health Commission on May 27.
This means that together with Hong Kong, Taiwan, Brazil, Egypt, and Turkey, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) now has the highest C-section rates in the world.
A World Health Organization report from 2010 estimated that 46% of Chinese babies were delivered via C-section. In 2017, another study found that this percentage was incorrect, although some urban and wealthier regions in China, such as Shanghai, did see C-section (CS) rates as a high as 68% (Black & Bhattacharya 2018, 1; McNeil 2017).
China’s CS rates have recently become a hot topic in Chinese newspapers and on social media. On May 27, the National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China held a Beijing news conference in which Qin Geng (秦耕), the director, announced that more actions will be taken to encourage natural childbirth among Chinese women.
These actions will, among others, include stricter regulation of cesarian section operations and the provision of more support and pain relief for laboring women, as well as a higher hospital income for natural births. The National Health Comission hopes to significantly reduce the number of unneccesssary C-sections without medical indication in this way (Beijing News 2019; Caijing 2019).
Since 1985, the international healthcare community has considered 10-15% to be “the ideal rate” for C-sections, of which the highest percentage are those CS deliveries with medical indications that can actually save the lives of mothers and babies.
Although the worldwide rates for CS deliveries have increased throughout the years, there is no evidence for the benefits of nonmedically indicated C-sections for women or children, according to the World Health Organization.
This is not the first time Chinese authorities try to combat the country’s high CS rates. After reports by the World Health Organization from 2010 and 2015 pointing out the potential hazards of unnecessary C-sections, there have been various state efforts to reduce the number of nonmedical cesarian surgeries.
Besides the introduction of free prenatal education classes, these efforts included monitoring public hospital CS rates and removing bonuses or cutting portions of a hospital’s income once their CS rates reached a certain threshold (e.g. 40%) (Wang 2017, 3). These government initiatives seem to have had effect: the country’s C-section growth rates have slowed down, but were not decreasing yet.
Since the Chinese government announced an end to its one-child policy in 2015, lowering cesarean sections rates has become a more urgent matter, as Chinese couples are now allowed to have a second child.
Although various studies from mainland China and beyond challenge the idea that nonmedical C-sections are less ‘safe’ than vaginal births for single deliveries, this risk changes when a woman who previously had a CS section plans another pregnancy: multiple cesarean sections are associated with additional risks including CS scar rupture and abnormal placental invasion (Biler et al 2017, 1074; Black & Bhattacharya 2018, 2; Liu et al 2015, 817).
Why So Many C-sections in China?
But why does China have such a high cesarian delivery rate at all? Since the early 1990s, mainland China saw a more dramatic rise in CS rates than, for example, the USA; from less than 10% (with only 3.4% in 1988), China went to one of the highest in the world (Hellerstein 2011; Wolf 2018, 13).
The answer to why this is, is not so straightforward and relates to socio-economic changes as well as cultural factors that come into play.
One reason is that there is a general belief in the ‘safety’ of cesarian births that influence women’s choices for a (nonmedical and planned) C-section (Black & Bhattacharya 2017, 2).
An insightful study into this matter is that of researcher Eileen Wang (2017), who found that anxiety about giving birth and fear of pain is also a major reason for nonmedical cesarian deliveries on maternal request, especially considering that only a minority of Chinese women are given any form of pain relief during labor. Besides traditional concepts, this is also because China faces a shortage of anesthetists and because obstetricians are not always well-informed to prescribe other forms of pain medication (2017, 5).
As noted by Wang, epidurals are denied to laboring women not just because anesthesiologists are too busy, but also because of various other factors: different from a scheduled C-section on their agenda, they are not always available during nighttimes and in weekends to administer anesthesia to women in labor, do not have the time to monitor a patient for hours during labor (whereas a cesarean could be done in an hour), or were not even trained to administer epidurals (2017, 5).
According to Wang, the concerns about labor pain result in more requests for C-sections, both before and during labor. With relatively low awareness and availability of labor pain relief methods many Chinese women simply opt for a C-section as a way to control their pain.
But there are also other factors that contribute to the relatively high rate of women requesting C-sections for nonmedical reasons. One of them is the importance placed in the astrological calendar: having a baby on that one ‘lucky day’ or within that ‘lucky year’ is considered enough reason to plan a cesarian birth for many Chinese families.
In early 2015, ahead of the Chinese New Year, many women rushed to the hospital to make sure their baby was born in the Year of the Horse (2014) as the Year of the Goat (2015) was coming up. There is an old Chinese saying that nine out of ten people born in the Year of the Goat are incomplete and will suffer from great misfortune throughout their life (“十羊九不全”).
Another factor that leads to more cesareans on maternal request relates to the existing concerns among women that vaginal delivery will affect their figure or sex life (Wang 2017, 2).
Responses on Chinese Social Media
Since the Beijing news conference of May 27, the hashtag “Reducing Unnecessary Cesarean Section Surgery” (#减少非必需剖宫产手术#) has taken off on Chinese social media.
“What do you call ‘unnecessary cesarian’?” one of the most popular comments said: “Isn’t it that so many women in labor choose to have a C-section because natural childbirth is too painful?”
Other commenters also called for a normalization of pain relief in labor, saying that the high percentage of C-sections lies in the fact that Chinese women lack access to “wútòng fēnmiǎn” (无痛分娩) or “painless birth,” meaning vaginal delivery with pain relief.
Some Weibo users also stress that women should have the freedom of choice on how they wish to give birth, saying: “C-section or natural should be my own choice” and “If you leave me no choice I might as well not give birth at all.”
Multiple commenters write: “The lower the C-section rate, the higher the suicides,” referring to an incident that occurred in Shaanxi in 2017 when a pregnant woman committed suicide by jumping from the fifth floor of the hospital after she was allegedly denied a CS delivery.
Other Chinese netizens also complain about the fact that it seems to be men who are promoting the new policies to combat the high C-section rates, writing: “Isn’t there a way to have them suffer the pain of labor instead?”
In her study, scholar Eileen Wang also argues that the lack of pain relief is one of the major issues that should be addressed by policymakers who are hoping to reduce the number of C-sections in China. Further improving the childbirth experience by, for example, integrating a midwifery model, is also essential in making natural childbirth more attractive for Chinese women, Wang argues.
For now, many hospitals in China are still offering C-section “packages”: some prices start at RMB 5800 ($840) for a C-section, other hospitals have packages that start from RMB 88,000 ($12,741) including a three-day hospital stay in a private room.
“It’s a pregnant’s woman body, so she should decide how she wants to deliver her baby,” one commenter on Weibo writes: “It should be a woman’s right to decide.”
By Manya Koetse
Biler, A., Ekin, A., Ozcan, A., Inan, A. H., Vural, T., & Toz, E. 2017. “Is It Safe to Have Multiple Repeat Cesarean Sections? A High Volume Tertiary Care Center Experience.” Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences 33(5): 1074–1079.
Black, Mairead & Sohinee Bhattacharya. 2018. “Cesarean Section in China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong— A Safe Choice for Women and Clinicians?” PLOS Medicine 15(10): 1-3.
Caijing. 2019. “卫健委：全国剖宫产率为36.7% 积极推广分娩镇痛.” Caijing , May 27 http://economy.caijing.com.cn/20190527/4591594.shtml [5.31.19].
Hellerstein, Susan Celia. 2011. “Cesarean Delivery in China Analysis of Cesarean Deliveries Without Indication.” The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists: 20s.
McNeil, Donald. 2017. “Study Finds Lower, but Still High, Rate of C-Sections in China.” New York Times, Jan 9 https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/09/health/c-section-births-china.html [6.2.19].
Wang, Eileen. 2017. “Requests for Cesarean Deliveries: The Politics of Labor Pain and Pain Relief in Shanghai, China.” Social Science and Medicine (173): 1–8.
WHO. 2015. “WHO statement on caesarean section rates.” World Health Organization, April https://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/maternal_perinatal_health/cs-statement/en/ [6.2.19].
Wolf, Jacqueline H. 2018. Cesarean Section – An American History of Risk, Technology, and Consequence. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Featured image by Sohu News.
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What Are Weibo’s “Super Topics”?
Explaining Weibo’s “Super Topics”
Over the past year, Weibo’s so-called “Super Topics” (超级话题) have become more popular on the social media platform as online spaces for people to connect and share information.
Weibo’s “super topic” function has been around since 2016. The function allows Weibo users to create and join interest-based content community pages that are online groups separated from the main Weibo space. One could perhaps compare these Weibo Super Groups to ‘mega-threads’ or ‘subreddits’ on Reddit.
These are the most important things to know about Weibo’s Super Topics:
#1 A Super Topic is Not the Same as a Hashtag
Similar to Twitter, hashtags make it possible for Weibo users to tag a topic they are addressing in their post so that their content pops up whenever other people search for that hashtag.
Different from Twitter, Weibo hashtags also have their own page where the hashtag is displayed on top, displaying how many people have viewed the hashtag, how many comments the hashtag is tagged in, and allowing users to share the hashtag page with others.
A Super Topic goes beyond the hashtag. It basically is a community account where all sort of information is shared and organized. People can ‘follow’ (关注) a Super Topic and can also ‘sign in’ (签到).
On the main page of every Super Topic page, the main subject or purpose of the super topic is briefly explained, and the number of views, followers, and posts are displayed.
A super topic-page can be created by any Weibo user and can have up to three major hosts, and ten sub-hosts. The main host(s) can decide which content will be featured as essential, they can place sticky notes, and post links to suggested topics.
#2 A Super Topic Is a Way to Organize Content
Super Topic pages allow hosts to organize relevant content in the way they want. Besides the comment area, the page consists of multiple tabs.
A tab right underneath the main featured information on the page, for example, shows the “sticky posts” (置顶帖) that the host(s) of the page have placed there, linking to relevant information or trending hashtag pages. Below the sticky notes, all the posts posted in the Super Topic community are displayed.
One of the most important tabs within the Super Topic page is called “essential content” (精花), which only shows the content that is manually selected by the host(s). This is often where opinion pieces, articles, official news, or photos, etc. are collected and separated from all the other posts.
Another tab is the “Hall of Fame” (名人堂), which mainly functions as a reference page. It features links to the personal Weibo pages of the super topic page host(s), links to the Weibo pages of top contributors, and shows a list of the biggest fans of the Super Topic. Who the biggest fan of the page is, is decided by the number of consecutive days a person has “checked-in” on the page.
#3 Super Topics Are a Place for Fans to Gather
Although a Super Topic could basically be about anything, from cities to products or hobbies, Super Topics are often created for Chinese celebrities, video games, football clubs, or TV dramas.
Through Super Topic pages, a sense of community can be created. People can be ranked for being the most contributive or for checking in daily, and comment on each other’s posts, making it a home base for many fan clubs across China.
The host(s) can also help somebody’s page (e.g. a celebrity account) grow by proposing them to others within the group.
Super Groups are ranked on Weibo based on their popularity. This also gives fans more reason to stay active in the group, making their Super Topic top ranking within their specific category (TV drama, food, photography, sports, games, etc).
What makes the Super Topic group more ‘private’ than the common Weibo area, is that people posting within the Super Topic can decide whether or not they also want their comment shared on their own Weibo page or not. If they choose not to, their comments or posts will only be visible within the Super Topic community.
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