For those living in Beijing, the gradual disappearance of the city’s various street foods has become painfully visible. Areas that once were the go-to place for quick morning snacks or nightly munchies, such as Xidan, Sanlitun backstreets, central Wudaokou or Xicheng hutongs are now devoid of street vendors. People selling nightly spicy soup or early fried eggs have become hard to find on the city’s central streets.
The area of Beijing’s famous Wangfujing is one of the remaining oases of street food in Beijing. The narrow streets behind the main shopping area has become a place where tourists can try a variety of snacks and where you can get an overview of all street snacks the central city once had to offer.
Although the capital’s city center has become devoid of outside snack stalls, street food vendors are still very common in the suburbs and outer districts of the capital, as those zones are not regulated as much as the inner city.
Street food in the inner city of Beijing has largely disappeared over the last two years due to municipal government crackdowns. Under the umbrella of “civilized Beijing”, much has changed in the city, which includes the gradual exodus of street vendors. Street food is often seen as an indication of underdevelopment by Beijing government officials who might not think of the city’s street food in the pleasant and nostalgic way most do. Pollution caused by street barbecues and food safety issues are also said to be reasons for the recent crackdowns.
From Street Food Stalls to Large Chain Stores
Less than half a decade ago you could find everyday street food on practically every corner of Beijing’s streets, where people would set up their mobile food stall to sell people a variety of snacks.
In the mornings, particularly jidan guangbing (鸡蛋光饼) and jianbing (煎饼) are the breakfast hot sellers. The first are eggs in a biscuit kind of pancake, the second is also known as ‘street crepe’ – a fried pancake wrap with deep-fried dough stick and chopped green onion, cumin and sesame (see image below).
Plain fried dough sticks (油条 youtiao or 焦圈 jiaoquan) and warm soy milk are also popular breakfast items. In the evenings, areas as Sanlitun would generally have a malatang (麻辣烫, officially translated as ‘hot spicy soup’) stall on multiple places besides the road, which has now become quite rare – although some of the back alleys will still have a stall (see image).
As street food is getting rarer in the city center, larger chain stores are profiting from their disappearance.
One of the chains that has been successful over the past year is Huang Taiji (黄太吉). The 33-year-old founder of the chain compares it to Starbucks, but then for Chinese traditional snacks. “Chinese fast food for the WeChat generation”, is how Chinese media have described the flourishing chain. Huang Taiji is indeed popular amongst the social-media-loving generations, as the company is known for its guerrilla marketing campaigns on Weibo and Wechat.
The chain Huang Taiji has taken the original recipe of the jianbing – which originally just had a crispy cracker in the middle and a savory crepe wrapped around it with some sauce, coriander leaves and spring onions – and they have taken that concept and upped its quality. It is still Beijing ‘fast food’, but you can now put meat inside it and a lot of things that you were not able to get with the street food.
The jianbing version by the Huang Taiji chain, image by SCMP.
Many chains in Beijing are replicating the Huang Taiji success. You can find them in shopping centers and the Beijing Soho complexes. Compared to the original street snacks, prices have gone up dramatically. A few years ago, a jianbing would be about 3 RMB (0.45 US$) on the street, and then, before street vendors were moving away from the city center to less regulated areas, it went up to 5 or 6 RMB (0.70-0.90 US$). At a chain you now pay up to 25 RMB (3.8 US$).
A Taste of Beijing Street Food
By Chinese standards, typical Beijing street snacks are actually not considered the most delicious in China. Beijingers are known to commonly like intestines and salty flavors. Its flavors are not as strong as most Chinese like them; not as sour as central Chinese cuisine, not as sweet as the coastal areas, nor as spicy as the dishes from the central south. Still, Beijing street food is quite well-known, as it also brings together some of the country’s most popular snacks.
Wangfujing is one of the area’s of Beijing where you can still find many street snacks, although the place is very touristy and hardly authentic. Still, the snack street offers a great variety of street foods, which would be otherwise very hard to find in one place.
Sound fragment: Ryan Myers walks through the snack street in Wangfujing.
One thing that is sold a lot on the Wangfujing market, is the popular ‘chuanr’ (串儿) or skewered meat. The name basically refers to any type of meat (or even octopus) cut into pieces and roasted on skewers.
Chuanr in Beijing are most commonly prepared with lamb, and are usually seasoned with cumin and chilli powder. Depending on your own taste, you could tell them to make it extra la (辣 spicy) or not.
The Wangfujing snack street also offers something which is more like a tourist attraction: the skewered scorpions – still alive with the legs wiggling around. Not a lot of people actually eat them Beijing – except for the visitors who then put the picture on social media.
Here, you can also find the roasted silkworm pupae. You won’t often see the silkworm pupae (as pictured below on the right, image via Flickr) in everyday Beijing, but they are readily available here. They don’t have a very outspoken taste – it’s the texture that makes them special: crunchy at first, and more spongy in the middle.
Traditionally, things like the silkworm pupae or the deep fried starfish have medicinal purposed in Chinese medicine.
Other snacks here include the tanghulu (糖葫芦), a traditional Chinese/Beijing snack of candied fruit. Its recipe is quite simple. Basically it starts with warm oil mixed with sugar, that is then used to dip in skewered fruits. This makes the fruits crunchy on the outside, and soft on the inside.
One of our favorite classics is kaorou (烤肉), which is like Turkish traditional kebab. It is usually lamb, but it can sometimes also be pork in China. This was commonly sold around subway stations before, like at Xidan and Wudaokou, but they have now disappeared. A kaorou sandwich, with minced meat, red peppers and small pieces of cucumber would usually cost around 5 RMB (0.7US$).
Sweet skewered roast corn is also popular for breakfast, and used to be sold in many places, just like roasted chestnuts, which are very typical for Beijing.
Available all over China is stinky tofu (臭豆腐), a fermented tofu with a very strong smell. Comparable to the durian fruit, its odor is unique and might make you run if it is the first time smelling it. It really does stink: the fermentation process brings out bacteria that gives it the special smell.
Donkey burgers(驴肉火烧) are pieces of bread with meat – kind of like an actual hamburger. The bread is quite thin, with roasted donkey meat in the middle – a popular snack in Beijing.
Donkey burger, image by Daqing55.
For cow stomach, fried pork liver or noodles with fermented soy beans, Wangfujing is also the place. Not all of its snacks may be very popular or generally available anymore, but they can still be tasted and smelled in this oasis of Beijing street food. Nothing against Wangfujing’s street food galore, but ideally, Beijing’s street food should be where it belongs: on the streets of Beijing.
– By Manya Koetse & Ryan Myers
All photo’s in this article are by Manya Koetse, unless stated otherwise.
©2016 Whatsonweibo. All rights reserved. Do not reproduce our content without permission – you can contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
What Are Weibo’s “Super Topics”?
Explaining Weibo’s “Super Topics”
Over the past year, Weibo’s so-called “Super Topics” (超级话题) have become more popular on the social media platform as online spaces for people to connect and share information.
Weibo’s “super topic” function has been around since 2016. The function allows Weibo users to create and join interest-based content community pages that are online groups separated from the main Weibo space. One could perhaps compare these Weibo Super Groups to ‘mega-threads’ or ‘subreddits’ on Reddit.
These are the most important things to know about Weibo’s Super Topics:
#1 A Super Topic is Not the Same as a Hashtag
Similar to Twitter, hashtags make it possible for Weibo users to tag a topic they are addressing in their post so that their content pops up whenever other people search for that hashtag.
Different from Twitter, Weibo hashtags also have their own page where the hashtag is displayed on top, displaying how many people have viewed the hashtag, how many comments the hashtag is tagged in, and allowing users to share the hashtag page with others.
A Super Topic goes beyond the hashtag. It basically is a community account where all sort of information is shared and organized. People can ‘follow’ (关注) a Super Topic and can also ‘sign in’ (签到).
On the main page of every Super Topic page, the main subject or purpose of the super topic is briefly explained, and the number of views, followers, and posts are displayed.
A super topic-page can be created by any Weibo user and can have up to three major hosts, and ten sub-hosts. The main host(s) can decide which content will be featured as essential, they can place sticky notes, and post links to suggested topics.
#2 A Super Topic Is a Way to Organize Content
Super Topic pages allow hosts to organize relevant content in the way they want. Besides the comment area, the page consists of multiple tabs.
A tab right underneath the main featured information on the page, for example, shows the “sticky posts” (置顶帖) that the host(s) of the page have placed there, linking to relevant information or trending hashtag pages. Below the sticky notes, all the posts posted in the Super Topic community are displayed.
One of the most important tabs within the Super Topic page is called “essential content” (精花), which only shows the content that is manually selected by the host(s). This is often where opinion pieces, articles, official news, or photos, etc. are collected and separated from all the other posts.
Another tab is the “Hall of Fame” (名人堂), which mainly functions as a reference page. It features links to the personal Weibo pages of the super topic page host(s), links to the Weibo pages of top contributors, and shows a list of the biggest fans of the Super Topic. Who the biggest fan of the page is, is decided by the number of consecutive days a person has “checked-in” on the page.
#3 Super Topics Are a Place for Fans to Gather
Although a Super Topic could basically be about anything, from cities to products or hobbies, Super Topics are often created for Chinese celebrities, video games, football clubs, or TV dramas.
Through Super Topic pages, a sense of community can be created. People can be ranked for being the most contributive or for checking in daily, and comment on each other’s posts, making it a home base for many fan clubs across China.
The host(s) can also help somebody’s page (e.g. a celebrity account) grow by proposing them to others within the group.
Super Groups are ranked on Weibo based on their popularity. This also gives fans more reason to stay active in the group, making their Super Topic top ranking within their specific category (TV drama, food, photography, sports, games, etc).
What makes the Super Topic group more ‘private’ than the common Weibo area, is that people posting within the Super Topic can decide whether or not they also want their comment shared on their own Weibo page or not. If they choose not to, their comments or posts will only be visible within the Super Topic community.
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Why Trump Has Two Different Names in Chinese
Why does ‘Trump’ have multiple names in Chinese?
First published , updated version published March 7, 2019
Donald Trump has two most commonly used different names in Chinese. In Mandarin*, they are Tèlǎngpǔ (特朗普) and Chuānpǔ (川普). Both names have been used by Chinese mainstream media and netizens for years.
*(Due to the scope of this article, we’ll just use the Mandarin pinyin here.)
In the Chinese translation of Donald Trump’s autobiography The Art of the Deal (1987), the ‘Tèlǎngpǔ’ transliteration is used, whereas the translation of the George Ross book Trump-Style Negotiations (2008) uses ‘Chuānpǔ’ as the Chinese name for Trump.
Considering that Trump is making headlines every day, more people are wondering why Trump has two Chinese names, and which one is the correct name to use. There are even discussions about the topic on Chinese social media.
Why are foreign names translated?
Why are non-Chinese names actually translated into Chinese at all? With English and Chinese being such vastly different languages with entirely different phonetics and script, the majority of Chinese people will find it hard to pronounce a foreign name that is written in English.
Writing foreign names or terms in Chinese script has a long history and practical reasons which won’t be further elaborated on here. At present, aside from being standardized, it does not just help Chinese speakers to pronounce these words, it also makes it easier to remember them. Most Chinese names usually consist of two or three characters; the first character is the surname, and the last character(s) is the given name.
Translating a name to better adapt to the culture in which it is used does not only happen with English names in China; you often see the same happening with Chinese names in foreign countries.
In that case, the first character (surname) is moved to the back, and the given name changed into an English one. Alibaba’s Ma Yun, for example, has become globally known as ‘Jack Ma.’ Film star Zhao Wei is called ‘Vicky Zhao’, Tencent’s Ma Huateng is known as ‘Pony Ma,’ and the popular actress Lin Yun is called ‘Jelly Lin.’
The right way to translate a foreign name in Chinese
There are multiple ways to translate a foreign name to Chinese. Most commonly, a name is translated into Chinese characters that are phonetically similar to the original name, without necessarily being very meaningful. The transliteration of ‘Hillary’ (Clinton), for example, is ‘Xīlālǐ’ (希拉里). ‘Bush’ is translated as ‘Bùshí’ (布什).
Another option is to choose a name purely based on meaning rather than phonetics. One example is Elvis Presley, who is called ‘Cat King’ (Māo Wáng 猫王) in Chinese, which stays close to his nickname “The Hillbilly Cat.”
The best option when translating a foreign name into Chinese, however, is to make sure it stays close to its original pronunciation while also using elegant characters. In other words; it is nice when a name’s translation makes sense both phonetically and semantically. Marilyn Monroe’s last name in Chinese is Mènglù (梦露), for example, which sounds like ‘Monroe’ and has the characters for ‘Dream Dew’ – a perfect transliteration for such a dreamy actress.
Even when the characters used for a foreign name in Chinese are not necessarily intended to convey a certain meaning, it is important that they do not have any negative connotations. Nobody wants a character in their name associated with divorce, disease or death – it is believed to bring bad luck.
Another thing is that it is considered helpful for foreign names in Chinese is to maintain a ‘foreign flavor’ to it, to make it clear that the name is actually a transliteration. To give an example raised in this Nikkei article: President Reagan’s name is generally translated as Lǐgēn 里根 in Chinese – the characters being somewhat uncommon for a Chinese name.
The same name could also be written with the characters 李根, very common for a Chinese name, but then it would be difficult to know whether a media report is talking about Reagan the President or just a local Chinese person by the same name. Transliterations of foreign names, therefore, are often easily recognizable as foreign names on purpose.
Trump, Tèlǎngpǔ, and Chuānpǔ
In the case of Trump, his Chinese names are mainly chosen for phonetic reasons, with different sources using different characters. Part of the challenge in deciding the right Chinese translation for his name, is the fact that Chinese does not have consonant cluster ‘tr’ as one sound.
The Chinese-language Nikkei newspaper dedicated an op-ed written by Chinese scholar Ke Long (柯隆) to the matter, who argues that although it may all seem trivial, it is actually quite confusing and unpractical for president Trump to have more than one name in Chinese.
The Chinese media in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and most overseas Chinese-language media, refer to Trump as ‘Chuānpǔ’ (川普).* According to the World Journal, the biggest Chinese-language newspaper in the US, it is the only proper way to translate this name, yet most Chinese state media and Chinese-language UK media (such as BBC) all use ‘Tèlǎngpǔ.’
* (The Chinese version of The New York Times 纽约时报中文版 is an exception, as ‘Tèlǎngpǔ’ 特朗普 is generally also used in this publication.)
Author Ke Long explains that Chinese translations of foreign names try to stay as close as possible to the pronunciation of a name in its original language. This is why the name of the city ‘Paris’ is pronounced ‘Bālí’ (巴黎) in Mandarin Chinese, staying close to the French pronunciation, and ‘Amsterdam’ being ‘Āmǔsītèdān’ (阿姆斯特丹), which follows the city’s Dutch pronunciation.
If the British would pronounce ‘Trump’ as ‘te-lan-pu,’ then it would thus perhaps be more understandable why media such as the BBC would write Tèlǎngpǔ. But they don’t pronounce it like that, Ke Long argues, saying that the use of ‘Tèlǎngpǔ’ thus does not make sense, and is actually closer to the Japanese way of writing Trump’s name (‘トランプ’: to-ra-n-pu).
More so, the author writes, it does not make sense for Chinese media to take over the British transliteration of the Trump name. Considering Trump is American, Chinese media should follow the translations made by American media. He also notes that if it would be about the Prime Minister of Britain, the Chinese transliteration should follow the one used by the media in the UK.
Although the Nikkei author seems to advocate for a singular use of ‘Chuānpǔ’ by all media, no Chinese media are necessarily ‘wrong’ in their transliteration of the name Trump. The ‘Tèlǎngpǔ’ 特朗普 translation follows the example of outlets such as the BBC, while Chuānpǔ 川普 follows that of other media.
Some Chinese bloggers argue that Chuānpǔ 川普 is the best way to write Trump’s name, because the first character, that actually means ‘river,’ is commonly used in Chinese, making the name sound more ‘natural’ and easy to pronounce than ‘Tèlǎngpǔ.’ Moreover, they argue that the Mandarin ‘chuan’ sound is more appropriate to convey the pronunciation of ‘tr’ than the ‘te-lang’ way.
In the end, the reason why Trump has two names most commonly used in Chinese is just a matter of media, with various mainstream outlets adopting different names since Trump first made headlines, and without there being any clear consensus on which Chinese name to use across all these different Chinese-language media platforms around the world.
Chuángpù and Chuángpò?
On Chinese social media, President Trump even has more than two names. There are also netizens referring to him as 床鋪, 闯破 or 床破 (Chuángpù/Chuángpò); these are all transliterations that contain strange or negative characters, making the name unrefined and harsh-sounding on purpose to make the name ‘Trump’ look and sound bad.
Although there have been online discussions on the right transliteration for the name Trump, it is unlikely that there will be one official Chinese name for the US President in the near future. Xinhua News, China’s official state-run press agency, has consistently been using Tèlǎngpǔ 特朗普 for years, and will probably continue to use it.
Many netizens simply use both versions of his name in one post to avoid confusion, and some news reports have even started using both names in its headlines (image below).
Despite the somewhat confusing situation at hand, there are also those who do not seem to mind at all. “Who cares if it is Tèlǎngpǔ or Chuānpǔ anyway?” one netizen says: “In this day and age, we all know who it is we are talking about.”
This article first appeared in 2017 and has been republished with various corrections:
– The first version did not properly convey the argument made by author Ke Long in his Nikkei piece, which is more clearly laid out in this version.
– This version has added some extra information coming from sources after 2017.
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